Vidyasagar University

 Curriculum for B.A (Honours) in Sanskrit

[Choice Based Credit System]

 

Semester-II 

Course Course Code Name of the Subjects Course Type/

Nature

Teaching Scheme in hour per week Credit Marks
L T P
CC-3 Critical Survey of Sanskrit Literature Core Course – 3 5 1 0 6 75
CC-4 Self Management in the Gita Core Course – 4 5 1 0 6 75
GE-1   TBD GE 4/5 75
  2/1
AECC-2 Environmental Studies AECC (Elective) 4 50
Semester Total 20 275

 

Semester-II

List of Core Courses and Electives

Core Courses (CC)

CC-3: Critical Survey of Sanskrit Literature

CC-4: Self Management in the Gita

Generic Electives (GE)

[Interdisciplinary for other Department]

GE-2: Indian Culture and Social Issues

Or

GE-2: Sanskrit and other Modern Indian Languages

Or

GE-2: Indian Epigraphy & Paleography

 

CC-3: Critical Survey of Sanskrit Literature

CC3T: Critical Survey of Sanskrit Literature

Course Content:

Section ‘A’  Vedic Literature

Section ‘B’  Ramayana

Section ‘C’  Mahabharata

Section ‘D’ Puranas

Section ‘E’  General Introduction to Vyakarana, Darsana and Sahitvasastra

 

Unit-Wise Division:

Section ‘A’

Vedic Literature

 

Unit: I  Samhita (R.k, Yajul:,, Sama, Atharva) time,

subject- matter, religion & Philosophy, social life

 

Unit: II  Brahma,:ia, Ara,:iyaka, Upani$ad, Vedanga (Brief

Introduction)

Section ‘B’

Ramayana

Unit: I  Ramaya,:ia-time, subject-matter, Ramaya,:za as an Adikavya.

Unit: II  Ramaya,:ia as a Source Text and its Cultural Importance.

Section ‘C’

Mahabharata

Unit: I  Mahabharata and its Time, Development, and subject matter

Unit:II  Mahiibhiirata : Encyclopaedic nature, as a Source, Text, Cultural Importance.

 

Section ‘D’

Puranas

Unit: I   Purarnas : Subject matter, Characteristics

Unit: II  Pura1Jas Social, Cultural and Historical Importance

 

Section ‘E’

General Introduction to VyakaraI.J.a, Darsana and Sahityasastra

Unit-I  General Introduction to Vyakaral)a- Brief History of Vyakara1Jasastra

Unit-II  General Introduction to Darsana-Major schools Of indian Philosophy Carvaka, Bauddha, Jaina, Sankhya-yoga, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Purvamimarhsa and Uttara mI111a1i1sa.

Unit-III   General Introduction to Poetics- Six major Schools of Indian Poetics-Rasa, Alari1kara, Riti. Dhvani,Vakrokti and Aucitya.

 

CC-4: Self Management in the Gita

CC4T: Self Management in the Gita

Course Content:

 

Section.’ A’ Gita: Cognitive and emotive apparatus

Section ‘B’ Gita: Controlling the mind

Section ‘C’ Gita: Self management through devotion

Unit-Wise Division:

Section ‘A’

Gita: Cognitive and emotive apparatus

Unit: I   Hierarchy of indriya. manas. buddhi and atman 111.42; xv. 7

Role of the atman -XV. 7: XV.9

Mind as a product of prakrti VI 1.4

Properties of three gu1)as and their impact on the

mind-XIII. 5-6; XIV.5-8, 11-13; XIV.17

 

Section ‘B’ 

Gita: Controlling the mind – Confusion and conflict

Unit: I   Nature of conflict I. I; IV .16; 1.45; II.6

Causal factors – Ignorance – II.41; Indriya – II.60,

Mind – 11.67; Rajogu,:za – III.36-39; XVI.21;

Weakness of mind- 11.3: IV.5

 

Unit: II   Means of contro 11 ing the mind

Meditation – difficulties-VI.34-35, procedure VI. 11-14

Balanced life – III.8; VI. 16-17

Diet Control –XVII. 8-10

Physical and mental discipline – XVII. 14-19, VI. 36.

 

Unit: Ill  Means of conflict resolution

Importance of knowledge – II. 52; IV.38-39;IV.42

Clarity of huddhi – XVIIl.30-32

Process of decision making – XV!Il.63

Control over senses -11.59, 64

Surrender of kartrbhava -XVlll .13-16; V.8-9

Desirelessness- II.48; II.55

Putting others before self- III.25

 

Section ‘C’

Gita: Self management through devotion

Unit: I              Surrender of ego – II.7 ; ,IX.27; VIII. 7; XI.55 ; Il.4 7

Abandoning frivolous debates – VII.21, IV. I I;·IX.26

Acquisition of moral qualities – XII. I I; XII.13-19

 

GE-2: Indian Culture and Social Issues

GE2T: Indian Culture and Social Issues

Course Content:

Section ‘A· Culture in a multi-cultural society

Sct·lion • B’ Cultural roots of India

 

Unit-Wise Division:

 Section ‘A’

Understanding CultureI.

Unit: l                                     1. What at is culture? Culture and Civilization

  1. What is ‘Indian’ culture?
  2. 3. Culture in a multi-cultural society

 

Unit: II

l. Vedic sabhyata

  1. Sindhu sabhyata
  2. Sanskrit in lndo-lslamic tradition –

(Proceedings of the Sagar University seminar on ‘Islam ka Sanskrit parampara ko yogadana’)

Unit: III

I. Pandavani,

  1. Versions of the Rama legend in Sanskrit

literature – ValmTki’s Ramaya1Ja, Bhasa’s

Pratima natakam. Bhavabhuti’s Uttarama

caritam, Raghuva1hsam of Kalidasa,

Somadeva ‘s Kathasaritsagara, Ramayana manjari of Rajasekhara etc.

  1. Ritusamhara in folk music
  2. Sanskrit themes in traditional dance forms in Kerela
  3. Yaksagan
  4. Gitagovinda and Odissi

7 Major agricultural and seasonal festivals of India and the Indian calendar-

Bihu, Holi, Pomgal, Makar Samkranti, Lohari, Onam, Baisakhi, Sravani Purnirna

Section ‘B’

Social Issues

Unit: I  Law and change — Dharma as an ever evolving phenomenon

Manusmriti.Chapter 2. verses 6 and 12 with the commentary of Medhatithi

Lingat, Robert : Classical Law of India, Chapter 1, pp 3-7; tradition – pp 9-14;

Good customs – 14-17,

Mathur, A.D. : Medieval Hindu Law, Chapter 1, pp 1-8

 

Unit: II  Caste – Voices of challenge

Traditional varna hierarchy

Vajrasuci by Asvaghosa

Identity of women 6 hrs.

Draupadi’s question- Mahabharata, Sabha Parva

-Dyuta Parva (sanskritocuments.org)

Chapter 66 – Duryodhana asks Draupadi to be brought to the court I: Vidura’s protest 2, 4:

Chapter 67 – Duryodhana asks Pratikami to fetch

Draupadi’ 2; Draupadi’s refusal and question 5- l 0,

16; Yudhisthira’s response 39-41 ; Bhisrna’s

response 47-49; Draupadi’s Rejoinder 50-52

Vikarna’s statement, chapter 68, verses 12-17

Karna to Vikarna – 27-31,35.

 

Unit IV  Struggle to secure women’s right to property 8 hrs.

Yiijnavalkya Smrti, Vyavaharadhyiiya: Verse 135 with Vijnanesvara’s commentary (section on patni)

 

Or

GE-2: Sanskrit and other Modern Indian Languages

GE2T: Sanskrit and other Modern Indian Languages

 

Course Content:

Section ‘A’ Indo-Arynn Languages

Section ‘B’ Philology

Section ‘C’ Literature

 

Unit- Wise Division:

Section ‘A’

Indo-Aryan Languages

 

Unit: I  Stages of Indo-Aryan – Old Indo-Aryan, Middle lndo-Aryan Stages of development in the present day.

 

Section ‘B’

Philology

 

Unit: I   Phonetics of Sanskrit and other Modern Indian Languages

Unit: II  Morphology of Sanskrit and other Modern Indian Languages

Unit: III Syntax of Sanskrit and other Modern Indian Languages

 

Section ‘C’

Literature

 

Unit: I    Sanskrit as a source of Modern Indian Literature

Unit: II  Vernacular Languages as a source of enrichment of Sanskrit

 

 

Or

GE-2: Indian Epigraphy & Paleography                                       Credits 06

GE-2: Indian Epigraphy & Paleography

 

Course Contents:

Section ‘A’

Study of selected Inscriptions

 

Section ‘B’

Indian Palaeography

 

Section ‘C’

Brahmi script and history of the study of Indian Epigraphy

 

Section ‘A’

Study of selected Inscriptions

Unit: I:  

1. Asokan edicts & moral values:

  1. a) Samaja b) Susriisa c) Cikitsa d) Stryadhyak~amahamatra
  2. Dhamma – according to Asoka
  3. Asokan edicts administrative Officers
  4. a) rajjuka b) Yukta c) dharma- mahamatra
  5. Welfare state: repair of dam, mati-saciva, karma-saciva in Junagadh Inscription of Rudradaman

 

Unit: II   

1. Eran Pillar Inscription: Status of Samudragupta

  1. Meharauli Iron Pillar Inscription of Candra:
    • Reaction of sub-ordinate rulers after the death of Samudragupta
    • Mighty Candragupta (II)
  1. Influence of the Cahmana ruler, Vi:saladeva as depicted in the Delhi-Topra Pillar Inscription

 

Section ‘B’ 

Indian Palaeography

 

Unit: I            

I. Antiquity of writing in India

  1. a) Observations from foreign scholars
  2. b) Literary evidences
  3. c) Observations made by Indian Epigraphists.
  4. Importance of the study of Inscriptions.
  5. a) Geographical description b) Historical evidences c) Society d) Religion e) Literature f) Economic Conditions g) Administration

 

Unit: II  

I. Types of Inscriptions:

  1. a) Prasasti b) Religious c) Donations d) Grants
  2. Writing material:
  3. a) Rocks b) Pillars c) Metal Plates d) Statues e) Pen, Brush, Chisel, Stylus, Paint/Colour

 

Section ‘C’

BrahmI script and history of study of Indian Epigraphy

 

 Unit: I            

I. Origin of the BrahmT Script

  1. a) Foreign Origin b) Indian Origin
  2. I. Greek origin a.2. Phoenician origin
  3. l. Theory of South Indian Origin b.2. Theory of Aryan Origin.
  4. Development of the script upto 700 A.D.
  5. Varieties of the BrahmT script.

Unit: II                      

I. History of reading of Indian Inscriptions.

  1. Contribution ofEpigraphists: G.H. Ojha, Fleet, Princep, D.C. Sircar, Cunningham, Buhler.
  1. System of dating and use of eras: Vikram Era, Saka Era, Gupta Era, Harsa Era.

 

Unit: III   Ethics: Karma & Punarjanma theory, Liberation

 

************

Curriculum for B.A (General) in Sanskrit

[Choice Based Credit System]

 

Semester-II

Course Course Code Name of the Subjects Course Type/

Nature

Teaching Scheme in hour per week Credit Marks
L T P
CC-3

[DSC-1B]

Sanskrit Prose Core Course 5 1 0 6 75
CC-4

[DSC-2B]

TBD DSC-2B (other Discipline) Core Course 6 75
AECC

Core[L-1]

  MIL-1 AECC – Core

[Language core]

5 1 0 6 75
AECC

(Elective)

Environmental Studies AECC (Elective) 4 100
Semester Total 22 325

 

Semester – II

DSC=1B : Sanskrit Prose                                                                             Credits 06

DSC-1B: Sanskrit Prose

DSC1BT: Sanskrit Prose

Course Content :

Section ‘A’                 Sukanasopadesha

Section ‘B’                 Sivarajavijayam, Nihswasa-1

Section ‘C’                 Survey of Sanskrit Literature – Prose

 

Unit-Wise Division:

Section ‘A’

Sukanasopadesha

Unit: I   Introduction- Author/Text, Text up to page 116 of Prahlad Kumar Up to यथा यथा चेयं चपला दीप्यते

समाप्तिपर्यन्तम् (upto the end of the text).

Unit: II  Society, Āyurveda and political thoughts depicted in Śukanāsopadeśa, logical meaning and application of sayings

 

Section ‘B’

Sivarajavijayam, Nihswasa – 1

Unit: I   Para 1 to 20 Introduction – Author/Text, Text

reading (Grammar, Translation, and Explanation),

poetic excellence, plot, Timing of Action.

Unit: II  From para 21 to the end of the text. Text reading

(Grammar, Translation and Explanation), Poetic

excellence, plot, Timing of Action

Section ‘C’

Survey of Sanskrit Literature – Prose

Unit: 1  Origin and development of prose and important  Prose romances   Subandhu, Bana, Dandin, Ambikadatta vyasa

Unit: II  Paňcatantra, Hitopadeśa, Vetālapaňcaviṁśatikā, iṁhāsanadvātriṁśikā, Puruṣaparīkṣā,

 

********

Vidyasagar University

Curriculum for B.A (Honours) in Sanskrit

[Choice Based Credit System]

 

 Semester-III

Course Course Code Name of the Subjects Course Type/

Nature

Teaching Scheme in hour per week Credit Marks
L T P
CC-5 C5T: Classical Sanskrit Literature (Drama) Core Course – 5 5 1 0 6 75
CC-6 C6T: Poetics and literary criticism Core Course – 6 5 1 0 6 75
CC-7 C7T: Indian Social Institutions and Polity Core Course – 7 5 1 0 6 75
GE-3   TBD Generic Elective-3 6 75
SEC-1 SEC1T: Acting and Script Writing

Or

SEC1T: Reading skills in Brāhmī Scripts

Skill Enhancement Course-1 1 1 0 2 50
Semester Total 26 350

 

 

L=Lecture, T= Tutorial, P=Practical, CC = Core Course, GE= Generic Elective, SEC = Skill Enhancement Course, TBD = to be decided

Generic Elective (GE)( Interdisciplinary) from other Department.

 

Modalities of selection of Generic Electives (GE): A student shall have to choose 04 Generic Elective (GE1 to GE4) strictly from 02 subjects / disciplines of choice taking exactly 02 courses from each subjects of disciplines. Such a student shall have to study the curriculum of Generic Elective (GE) of a subject or discipline specified for the relevant semester.

 

List of the Core Course (CC) and Electives

 Core Course (CC)

 CC-5: Classical Sanskrit Literature (Drama)

CC-6:  Poetics and literary criticism

CC-7:  Indian Social Institutions and Polity 

 

Skill Enhancement Course(SEC)

 SEC-1: Acting and Script Writing

Or

SEC-1: Reading skills in Brāhmī Scripts   

 

Generic Electives (GE)

GE-3:  Indian Aesthetics

Or

GE-3:  Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy 

Or

GE-3:  Ancient Indian Polity 

 

 

Semester-III

 

Core Courses (CC)

 

CC-5: Classical Sanskrit Literature (Drama)                                     Credits 06

C5T:  Classical Sanskrit Literature (Drama)                                                 

Course Contents:

Section A:    Svapnavāsavadattam– Bhāsa Act I & VI

Section B:     Abhijňānaśākuntalam– Kālidāsa  I & IV

Section C:     Mudrārākṣasam – Viśākhadatta I, II & III

Section D :   Critical survey of Sanskrit Drama

Section A

Svapnavāsavadattam– Bhāsa Act I & VI

 Unit: I

Svapnavāsavadattam: Act I &VI Story, Meaning/Translation and Explanation.

Unit: II

Svapnavāsavadattam: Unique features of Bhāsa’s style, Characterization, Importance of 1st and 6th Act, Society, Norms of Marriage, Story of ‘regains’. भासोहासः

 

Section B

Abhijānaśākuntalam– Kālidāsa I & IV

Unit: I

Abhijňānaśākuntalam : Act I-  (a) Introduction, Author, Explanation of terms like nāndī, prastāvanā, sūtradhāra, naṭī, viṣkambhaka, vidūṣaka, kañcukī,   (b) Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot, Timing of Action. Personification of nature, Language of Kālidāsa, dhvani in Upamā Kālidāsa, Purpose and design behind Abhijñānaśākuntalam and other problems related to texts, popular saying about Kālidāsa & Sākuntalam .

Unit:  II

Abhijňānaśākuntalam Act IV- Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot, Timing of Action.

 

Section C

Mudrārākṣasam – I, II & Viśakhdatta III

Unit: I

Mudrārākṣasam: Act I – (a) Introduction, Author, Purpose and design behind Mudrārākṣasa.   (b) Text Reading prescribed verses for translation and explanation- 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27. ( Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot, Timing of Action.

Unit: II

Mudrārākṣasam: Act II – prescribed verses for translation and explanation- 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, and 23, Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot, Timing of Action.

Unit: III

Mudrārākṣasam: Act III – prescribed verses for translation and explanation- 1, 3, 4, 6, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31 and 33. Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence,  Plot, Timing of Action.)

Section D

Critical survey of Sanskrit Drama

Unit-I:  Sanskrit Drama: Origin and Development, Nature of Nātaka,

Unit-II:  Some important dramatists and dramas: Bhāsa, Kālidāsa, Śūdraka, Viśākhadatta, Śri Harṣa, Bhavabhūti, Bhaṭṭanārāyaṇa and their works.

 

 

CC- 6:  Poetics and literary criticism                                             Credits 06

C6T:  Poetics and literary criticism                                                                       

Course Contents:

 Section A:       Introduction to Sanskrit poetics

Section B:      Forms of Kāvya-Literature

Section C:      Śabda-śakti (Power of Word) and rasa-sūtra

Section D:      Alaṁkāra (figures of speech) and chandasa (metre)

 

Section A

Introduction to Sanskrit Poetics

Unit: I

Introduction to poetics: Origin and development of Sanskrit poetics, its various names- kriyākalpa, alaôkāraśāstra, sāhityaśāstra, saundryaśāstra.

Unit: II

Definition (lakṣaṇa), objectives (prayojana) and causes (hetu) of poetry. (according to kāvyaprakāśa)

Section B

Forms of Kāvya-Literature

 Unit: I

Forms of poetry: dṛśya, śravya, miśra, (campū)

Unit: II

Mahākāvya, khaṇḍakāvya, gadya-kāvya: kathā, ākhyāyikā (according to Sāhityadarpaṇa)

Section C

Śabda-śakti and rasa-sūtra

Power/Function of word and meaning (according to kāvyaprakāśa). abhidhā (expression/ denotative meaning), lakṣaṇā (indication/ indicative meaning) and vyañjanā (suggestion/ suggestive meaning).

Unit: II

Rasa: rasa-sūtra of Bharata and its prominent expositions: utpattivāda, anumitivāda, bhuktivāda and abhivyaktivāda, alaukikatā (transcendental nature) of rasa (as discussed in Kāvyaprakāśa).

Section D

Figures of speech and Meter

 Unit: I

Figures of speech- anuprāsa, yamaka, śleṣa, upamā, rūpaka, sandeha, bhrāntimān, apahnuti, utprekṣā, atiśayokti, tulyayogitā, dīpaka, dṛṣṭānta, nidarśanā, vyatireka, samāsokti, svabhāvokti, aprastutapraśaṁsā,  arthāntaranyāsa,  kāvyaliṅga, vibhāvanā.

Unit: II

Metres- anuṣṭup,  āryā, indravajrā, upendravajrā, drutavilambita, upajāti, vasantatilakā, mālinī, mandākrāntā, śikhariṇī, śārdūlavikrīḍita, sragdharā.

 

CC-7:  Indian Social Institutions and Polity                                                          Credits 06

C7T: Indian Social Institutions and Polity                                                            

Course Contents:

Section A:       Indian Social Institutions: Nature and Concepts

Section B:      Structure of Society and Value of Life

Section C:      Indian Polity: Origin and Development

Section D:      Cardinal Theories and Thinkers of Indian Polity

 

Section A

Indian Social Institutions: Nature and Concepts

Unit: I

Indian Social Institutions: Definition and Scope:

Sociological Definition of Social Institutions. Trends of Social Changes, Sources of Indian Social Institutions (Vedic Literature, Sūtra Literature,  Purāṇas, Rāmāyaṇa , Mahābhārata ,Dharmaśāstras, Buddhist and Jain Literature, Literary Works, Inscriptions, Memoirs of Foreign Writers)

Unit: II

Social Institutions and Dharmaśāstra Literature:

Dharmaśāstra as a special branch of studies of Social Institutions, sources of Dharma (Manusmṛti, 2, 12; Yājñavalkyasmṛti,1.7).

Different kinds of Dharma in the sense of Social Ethics Manusmṛti, 10, 63; Viṣṇupurāṇa 2.16-17); Six kinds of Dharma in the sense of Duties (Mitākṣarāṭīkā on Yājñavalkyasmṛti,1.1).

Tenfold Dharma as Ethical Qualities (Manusmṛti,6. 92);   Fourteen – Dharmasthānas (Yājñavalkyasmṛti,1.3)

Section B

Structure of Society and Values of Life

Unit: I

Varṇa-System and Caste System:

Four-fold division of Varṇa System, (Ṛgveda, 10.90.12), Mahābhārata,  Śāntiparva, 72. 3-8);

Division of Varṇa according to Guṇa and Karma (Bhagvadgīta , 4.13, 18.41-44).

Origin of Caste-System from Inter-caste Marriages (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsanaparva, 48.3-11);

Emergence of non-Aryan tribes  in Varṇa-System (Mahābhārata, Śāntiparva, 65.13-22).

Social rules for up-gradation and down-gradation of Caste System (Āpastambadharmasūtra, 2.5.11.10-11, Baudhāyanadharmasūtra, 1.8.16.13-14, Manusmṛti, 10, 64, Yājñavalkyasmṛti, 1.96)

Unit: II

Position of Women in the Society :

Brief survey of position of women in different stages of Society.

Position of women in Mahābhārata  (Anuśāsanaparva, 46.5-11,  Sabhāparva, 69.4-13.

Praise of women in The Bṛhatsaṁhitā  of Varāhamihira (Strīprasaṁsā, chapter-74.1-10)

Unit: III

Social Values of Life:

Social Relevance of Indian life style with special reference to Sixteen Saṁskāras.

Four aims of life ‘Puruṣārtha  Catuṣṭaya’- 1. Dharma, 2.  Artha,  3. Kāma,  4. Mokṣa.

Four Āśramas – 1. Brahmacarya, 2. Gṛhastha,  3. Vānaprastha,  4.  Saṁnyāsa.

Section C

Indian Polity : Origin and Development

 Unit: I

Initial stage of Indian Polity (from Vedic period to Buddhist period).

Election of King by the people: ‘Viśas’ in Vedic priod (Ṛgveda,10.173;10.174; Atharvaveda,3.4.2; 6.87.1-2).

Parliamentary Institutions: ‘Sabhā,‘Samiti’ and ‘Vidatha’ in Vedic period (Atharvaveda,7.12.1;12.1.6 ; Ṛgveda ,10.85.26);

King-maker ’Rājakartāraḥ‘ Council in Atharvaveda (3.5.6-7),Council of ‘Ratnis’ in  śatapathabrāhmaṇa (5.2.5.1);

Coronation Ceremony of Samrāṭ in śatapathabrāhmaṇa (51.1.8-13; 9.4.1.1-5).

Republic States in the Buddhist Period (Digghnikāya, Mahāparinibbaṇa Sutta, Aṅguttaranikāya, 1.213; 4.252,256)

 Unit: II

Later Stages of Indian Polity (From Kauṭilya to Mahatma Gandhi).

Concept of Welfare State in Arthaśāstra of Kauṭilya (Arthaśāstra, 1.13 :  ‘matsyanyāyābhibhutḥ’ to ‘yo’ asmāngopāyatīti’);

Essential Qualities of King (Arthaśāstra, 6.1.16-18: ’sampādayatyasampannaḥ’ to  ‘jayatyeva na hīyate’);

State Politics ’Rajadharma’( Mahābhārata , Śāntiparva,120.1-15; Manusmṛti, 7.1-15; Śukranīti,1.1-15);

Constituent Elements of Jain Polity in Nitivākyāmṛta of Somadeva Suri, (Daṇḍanīti- samuddeśa, 9.1.18 and Janapada- samuddeśa, 19.1.10).

Relevance of GandhianThought in Modern Period  with special reference to ‘Satyāgraha’ Philosophy (‘Satyāgrahagītā’ of Panditā  Kṣamārāva and ‘Gandhi Gītā’, 5.1-25 of Prof. Indra)  

Section D

Cardinal Theories and Thinkers of Indian Polity

 Unit: 1

Cardinal Theories of Indian Polity:   ‘Saptāṅga’ Theory of State: 1.Svāmi, 2. Amātya,     3. Janapada 4. Pura, 5. Kośa, 6. Daṇḍa and 7. Mitra (Arthaśāstra, 6.1. Mahābhārata, Śāntiparva, 56.5, Śukranīti, 1.61-62).

‘Maṇḍala ‘Theory of Inter-State Relations: 1.Ari,    2. Mitra, 3. Ari-mitra,4.Mitra- mitra, 5.Ari-mitra- mitra;

‘Śāḍgunya’ Policy of War and Peace : 1. Sandhi, 2. Vigraha, 3. Yāna, 4. Āsana,  5. Saṁśraya  6. Dvaidhibhāva.

‘CaturvidhaUpāya’for  Balancing the power of State : 1.Sāma 2.Dāma,3.Daṇḍa.4.Bheda;

Three Types of State Power ’Śakti’:  1.Prabhu- śakti, 2. Mantra- śakti, 3. Utsāha-śakti.

 Unit: II:  Important Thinkers on Indian Polity:

Manu, Kautilya, Kāmandaka, Śukrācārya, SomadevaSuri, Mahatma Gandhi.

 

Skill Enhancement Course (SEC)

SEC-1: Acting and Script Writing                                                   Credits 02

SEC1T: Acting and Script Writing                                                           

Course Contents:

Section A:      Acting (Abhinaya

Section B:     Script Writing (Paṭakathālekhana)

 

Section A: Acting (Abhinaya)

 Unit: I

  1. Persons competent for presentation (acting) :

kuśala (skilful), vidagdha (learned),  pragalbha (bold in speech), jitaśramī (inured to hard-work) .

 

  1. Lokadharmī and Nātyadharmī Abhinaya
  2. Nāṭya-prayoktā-gaṇa (members of theatrical group) :

sūtradhāra (director),  nāṭyakāra (playwrighter), naṭa (actor) kuśīlava(musician), bharata, nartaka (dancer), vidūṣaka (jester) etc.

Unit: II

(i.) Assignment of role:

  1. General principles of distribution
  2. Role of minor characters
  3. Role of women characters
  4. Special cases of assigning of role

(ii.) Kinds of roles: anurūpa (natural), virūpa (unnatural), rūpānusariṇī (imitative)

Unit: III

Definition of abhinaya and its types:

  1. Āṅgika (gestures): aṅga, upāṅga and pratyaṅga
  2. Vācika(oral): svara, sthāna, varṇa, kāku, bhāṣā .
  3. Sāttvika (representation of the Involuntary gestures)
  4. Āhārya: pusta, alaṅkāra, aṇgaracanā, sañjiva (dresses and make-up)

 

Section B

Script Writing

 Unit: I

Types of dramatic production:

sukumāra (delicate), āviddha (energetic).

Nature of plot (vastu): Ādhikārika (principal),  Prāsaṅgika (subsidiary), Dṛsya (presentable), Sūchya (restricted scenes).

Unit: II

Division of Plot

  1. Source of plot: Prakhyāta (legendary), Utpādya (invented), Miśra (mixed);
  2. Objectives of plot- Kārya (dharma, artha, kāma);
  3. Elements of plot- Five kinds of Arthaprakṛtis (caustations), Kāryāvasthā (stages of the action of actor); Sandhis (junctures) and their sub-divisions (segments)
  4. Five kinds of Arthopakṣepaka (interludes);

Unit: III

Dialogue writing: kinds of saṁvāda ( dialogue) 

  1. Sarvaśrāvya or Prakāśa (aloud)
  2. Aśrāvya or Svagata (aside)
  3. Niyataśrāvya : Janāntika (personal address), Apavārita (confidential)
  4. Ākāśabhāṣita (conversation with imaginary person).

Unit: IV

  1. Duration of play
  2. Three Unities: Time, Actions and place.
  3. Starting of a play: Pūrvaraṅga –Raṅgadvāra, Nāndī, Prastāvanā, Prarocanā.
  4. Analysis of acting, plot and dialogue in the context of Abhijñānaśākuntalam.

 

Or

SEC-1: Reading skills in Brāhmī Scripts                                                         Credits 02

SEC1T: Reading skills in Brāhmī Scripts

Course Contents:

Section A:      Brāhmī Alphabet

Section B:     Translation

Section C:      Kind of Scripts

Section A

Brāhmī alphabets

Unit: I:

Early Brāhmī alphabet – Aśokan period

Section B

Translation to variations – up to 4th century C.E

Unit: I

Translation to variations – up to 4th century C.E.

Section C

Kind of script

Unit – I:         North Indian

Unit – II:       South Indian

Unit – III:      East Indian

Unit – IV:      West Indian

Unit – V:        Vākāṭaka variety

 

Generic Electives  ( GE)

 

GE-3:  Indian Aesthetics                                                                          Credits 06

GE3T:  Indian Aesthetics                                                                                                

Course Contents:

Section A:      Aesthetics ( Saundaryaśāstra), its nature and components

Section B:      Aesthetic experience ( Rasa) and its process

Section C:      Aesthetic elements (saundarya – tattva)

Section D:      Prominent thinkers on Aesthetics

 

Section A

Aesthetics ( Saundaryaśāstra), its nature and components

 Unit: I

Beauty (Saundarya): its definition, nature and components: vaya,rūpa, vacana, hāva

Unit: II

Discussion of synonyms of the term Beauty (Saundarya) :  ramaṇīyatā, śucitā, lāvaṇya, cārutā, kānti, vicchitti, madhuratā, mugdhatā, manohāritā, śrī.

Section B

Aesthetic experience (Rasa) and its process

Unit: I

Nature of rasa (Aesthetic experience) according to Sāhityadarpaṇa,  aesthetic enjoyment – eternal   bliss, the ultimate reality (ānandamayatā, alaukikatā).

Unit: II

Constituents of rasa: bhāva (human feelings and emotions) vibhāva (causes or determinants), anubhāva (voluntary gestures), sāttvika bhāva (Involuntary gestures), vyabhicāri bhāva (transitory states) and sthāyibhāva (basic mental states), sahṛdaya / sāmājika (Connoisseur / Spectator). anukārya, anukartā.

Unit: III

sādhāraṇīkaraṇa (Generalization), four mental stages of rasa realization: vikāsa (cheerfulness), vistāra (exaltation), kṣobha  (agitation), vikṣepa (perturbation). Number of rasas  according to Bharat.

Section C

Aesthetic elements (saundarya – tattva)

 Unit: I

Art as the mode of expression of saundarya –in fine arts (Architecture, Sculpture and Painting).

 Unit: II

Main aesthetic elements of  literary arts (Poetry and Drama) :  alaṅkāra, rīti, dhvani,vakrokti & aucitya.

Section D

Prominent thinkers of Indian Aesthetics

 Unit: I

Bharata, Bhāmaha, Vāmana, Danḍī, Ānandavardhana   Abhinavagupta, Kuntaka, Mahimabhaṭṭa, Kṣemendra,  Vishvanātha and  Jagannātha.

Unit: II

Perception of beauty in Drama from cultural, social and aesthetical point of view in the context of Abhijñānaśākuntalam.

 

 

Or

GE-3:  Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy                                        Credits 06

GE3T:  Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy                                                  

Course Contents:

Section A:      General Introduction

Section B:     Schools of Indian Philosophy

Section C:     Problems in Indian Philosophy

Section A

Fundamentals of Philosophy

 Unit: I

Darśana – concept and aims, Classification of Indian Philosophical schools,

Unit: II

Salient features of Indian Philosophy

Section B

Schools of Indian Philosophy

Unit: I

Heterodox Schools

  • Cārvāka – General introduction with emphasis on Chanllenge to Veda, Rejection of Transcendental Entities, Ethics (Based on Sarvadarshansamgrah)
  • Jainism – General introduction with emphasis on Anekāntavāda, Syādvāda, Saptabhaṅginaya, triratna
  • Buddhism- General Introduction with emphasis on Four Noble Truths

Unit: II

Orthodox Schools of Philosophy

  • Sāṁkhya – General Introduction with emphasis on prakṛti, guṇatraya & puruṣa Entities (Based on Sāṃkhyakārikā)
  • Yoga – Eight fold path of Yoga (Based on Yogasūtra Sādhanapāda and their on Yogabhāṣya thereon)

Unit: III

Nyāya –General introduction with emphasis on Vaiśesika : Seven Padārthas (Based on Tarksamgrah)

Unit: IV

Advaita Vedānta – General introduction with emphasis a Brahman, Māyā,  Jīva and Jagat (Based on  Vedāntasāra)

Unit: V

Mῑmāṃsā – Svataḥ Prāmāṇyavāda

Unit: VI

Bhakti Schools of Vedānta – General introduction with emphasis on God, Īśvara & nature of bhakti

Section C

Problems in Indian Philosophy

Unit: I

Epistemology: six pramāṇas

Unit: II

Metaphysics: realism, idealism, Causation – Satkāryavāda. Asatkāryavāda, Pariṇāmavāda, Vivartavāda, svabhāvavāda, consciousness and matter, theories of self

Unit: III

 Ethics: Karma & Punarjanma theory, Liberation

Or

GE-3:  Ancient Indian Polity                                                                               Credits 06

GE3T: Ancient Indian Polity                                                                             

Course Contents:

Section A:  Name, Scope and Origin of Ancient Indian Polity

Section B:  Types and Nature of the State

Section C:  Kingship, Council of Ministers and Assemblies

Section D:  Law and Justice, Taxation and Inter- State Relations

Section A

Name, Scope and Origin of Ancient Indian Polity

Unit: I

Name, Scope and Sources of the Science of Polity

  • Name of Ancient Indian Polity: Danḍanīti, Dharmaśāstra,Nītiśāstra;
  • Scope of Indian Polity: Relation with Dharma, Artha and Nīti;
  • Sources :Vedic Literature, Purāṇas, Rāmāyaṇa, Mahābhārata, Dharmaśāstra, Kautilya’s Arthaśāstra and Nīti –śāstra

Unit: II

Origin of the State’Danḍaniti’:

  • Origin of State’Daṇḍanīti’:Mātsyanyāya- Theory -( Arthaśāstra1.1.3, Mahābhārata, Śānti parva, 67.17-28, Manusmrti,7.20)
  • Divinity of the King’Rājā’ – (Arthaśāstra,1.9, Mahābhārata, Śānti  parva,67.43-48, ,Manusmṛti, 7.4-7)

Section B

Types and Nature of the State

Unit: I

Types of the State:

  • Rājya,Svrājya,Bhojya,Vairājya,Mahārājya, Sāmrājya concept in Aitreya Brāhmaṇa (8.3.13-14 and 8.4.15-16)
  • Republics in Buddhist Literature (Dighnikāya, MahāparinibbāṇaSūtta, Anguttaranikāya,1.213;4.252,256)

Unit: II

Nature of the State:

  • With special reference to Saptānga-Theory: 1. Svāmī, 2. Amātya, 3. Janapada, 4. Pura, 5. Kośa, 6. Daṇḍa and 7. Mitra (Arthaśāstra,6.1; Manusmṛti, 9.294)

Section C

Problems in Indian Philosophy

Unit: I

Kingship and Council of Ministers:

  • Kingship :Royal Succession, Coronation Ceremony, King as a Public Servent (Sukranīti,4.2.130,137), King as a Trustee(Arthaśāstra,10.3),
  • King as Upholder of the Moral Order(Mahābhārata, Śānti parva,120.1-35; Manusmṛti, 7.1-35);
  • Council of Ministers : Ratni Council in Vedic age Śatapathabrāhmaṇa, 5.2.5.1);
  • Council of Ministers in Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra (1.4,1.5,1.11) and Śukranīti,(2.70- 72)

Unit: II

Central Assemblies and Local Administration:

  • Central Assembly in Vedic Literature : ‘Sabhā’,’Samiti’ in Atharvaveda (7.12.1;12.1.6) and ‘Vidatha’ in Ṛgveda (10.85.26 ):
  • Town Assembly:’ Paura- Janpada‘ in Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata;
  • Village Council: Sabhā, Pañcakula, Pañcāyata

Section D

Law, Justice, Taxation and Inter-State Relations

Unit: I

Nature and Sources of Law ’Dharma’:

  • Four types of Source of Law ’Dharma’:1.’Dharma’, 2. Vyavahāra’, 3.’Caritra’ and ‘Rājaśāsana’;
  • Four types of Enforcement of Law: 1. Rules of Castes ’Jatidharma’, 2. Local Customs’ ‘Janapadadharma’, 3. Bye-laws of Guilds ’Śreṇīdharma’ and Family Traditions ’Kuladharma’

Unit: II

Judicial administration and Courts:

  • King as Head and Fountain Sources of all Justice, Qualities of Chief Justice-‘Pradvivak ‘and members of Jury-‘Sabhāsadah, (Shukraniti, 4.5.69-196)
  • Two types of Royal Courts ‘Dharmasthīya’ and ‘Kaṇṭakaśodhana’ in Arthaśāstra (3.1-20)
  • Social and local Courts situated in Villages-‘ Kula’,’Puga’,’Dharmaśāsana’.

Unit: III

Taxation Policy of State:

  • Reasonable and Equitable Taxation Policy ‘Śāstranīta’ permitted by Dharmaśāstra (Mahābhārata, Śānti parva,71.10-25, Manusmṛti, 7.127, 144) ;
  • Criticism of unlawful taxation policy in Mahābhārata, Śānti parva (87.19-18-22,88.4-7)
  • Two Types of Tax Sources in Arthaśāstra -1.’Aya- sarira’ and 2’Aya-mukha’(Altekar, A.S , State and Government in Ancient India, pp.262 267; Sahay, Shiva Swarup, , Prachin Bharaa ka Samajika evam Arthika Itihas, pp.456-458)

Unit: IV

Inter-State Relations of State:

  • Brief survey of ‘Manḍala’ Theory of Inter- State Relations; Principles and means of Diplomacy : 1.Sāma 2.Dāma,3 Danḍa.4.Bheda;
  • Diplomacy of War and Peace – ‘Ṣāḍguṇya theory:1.Sandhi, 2.Vigraha, 3.Yāna, 4.Āsana, 5.Sanśraya and, 6.Dvaidhībhāva (Altekar, A.S , State and Government in Ancient India, pp.291- 308; Satyaketu Vidyalankar, Prachin Bharatiya Shasana Vyavastha aur Rajashastra, pp.363- 376)

 

 

Vidyasagar University

Curriculum for B.A (General) in Sanskrit

[Choice Based Credit System]

Semester-III

Course Course Code Name of the Subjects Course Type/

Nature

Teaching Scheme in hour per week Credit Marks
L T P
DSC-1C DSC1CT: Sanskrit Drama Core Course 5 1 0 6 75
DSC-2C TBD DSC-2C (Other Discipline) Core Course 6 75
AECC

Core[L-2]

  English-2 AECC – Core

[Language core]

5 1 0 6 75
AECC

(Elective)

SEC1 : Computer awareness for Sanskrit

Or Indian Architecture System

Skill Enhancement Course-1 1 1 0 2 50
Semester Total 20 275

 

Semester – III

Core Course (CC)

 

DSC-1C (CC-3): Sanskrit Drama                                                                                   Credits 06

DSC1CT : Sanskrit Drama

Prescribed Course:

Section ‘A’                  Pratimanatakam: Act I&III – Bhasa

Section ‘B’                  Abhijiianasakuntalam Act IV- Kalidasa

Section ‘C’                  Technical Terms from Sanskrit Dramaturgy

Section D                   History of Sanskrit Drama and an Introduction

to Principle of Sanskrit Dramas

Unit-Wise Division:

 

Section ‘A’

Pratimanatakam: Act I&III – Bhasa

Unit I                         First Act Introduction, Text Reading (Grammar,

Translation, and Explanation), Poetic

excellence, Plot.

Unit II                                   Third Act Introduction, Text Reading

(Grammar, Translation, and Explanation),

Poetic excellence, Plot.

 

Section ‘B’

Abhijanamsakuntalam Act IV- Kalidasa

Unit: 1  Fourth Act (a) Introduction, Explanation of

terms like nandi, prastavana, sutradhara, nati, viskambhaka, vidusaka and

kancuki

(b) Text Reading (Grammar, Translation,

Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot, Timing of

Action. Personification of nature

Unit II:   kavyesu natakam ramyam, upama, Language of

Kalidasa, dhvani in Kalidasa, Purpose and design

behind Abhijnanasakuntalam and other problems

related to the text.

Section ‘C’

Technical Terms from Sanskrit Dramaturgy

Unit:I    नाटक, नायक, नायिका, पूर्वरङ्ग, नान्दी, सूत्रधार, नेपथ्य,  प्रस्तावना, कञ्चुकी एवं विदूषक।

Unit:II         अङ्क, स्वगत, प्रकाश, अपवारित, जनान्तिक आकाशभाषित, विष्कम्भक, प्रवेशक एवं भरतवाक्य

Section ‘D’

History of Sanskrit Drama and an Introduction to Principle of Sanskrit Dramas

 

Unit I   Origin and Development

Unit II  Some important dramatists and dramas: Bhasa, Kalidasa, Sudraka, Visiikhadatta, Harg

Bhavabhuti, and their works.

 

Skill Enhancement Course (SEC)

SEC-1: Computer awareness for Sanskrit                                                       Credits 02

SEC1T: Computer awareness for Sanskrit

Course Contents

Section A: Basic Computer Awareness

Section B: Typing in Unicode for Preservation and Digitalization of Sanskrit Text

Section C: Web Publishing

Section A

Basic Computer Awareness

Unit: I – Design, Architecture: Operating System

Unit: II – MS Office Tools (Word, Power points, Excel etc.)

Unit: III – Using Internet, Web Search (Searching E-text/ e-book for Sanskrit in Roman and

Devanagari Scripts), Email etc.

 

 Section B

Typing in Unicode for Preservation and Digitalization of Sanskrit Text

Unit: I – Character encoding, Unicode, ASCII, UTF-8, UTF-16

Unit: II – Typing in Unicode through various Softwares

Unit: III – Sanskrit Text Digitalization/Preservation/Storage

Section C

Web Publishing

Unit: I – Basics HTML, Java Scripts and CSS

Unit: II – Basics of Databases

Or

SEC-1: Indian Architecture System Credits 02

SEC1T: Indian Architecture System

Course Contents:

Section A: Vāstusaukhyam of Todaramala

Section B: Vāstusaukhyam of Todaramala

Section C: Vāstusaukhyam of Todaramala

Section D: Vāstusaukhyam of Todaramala

Section A

Vāstusaukhyam of Todaramala

Unit: I    Vāstusaukhyam of Toaramala – Chapter – 1 vastu prayojana, vastusvarūpa. (varses-4-13)

Unit: II –  Vāstusaukhyam of Toaramala – Chapter – 2 Bhumi parikaam, diksādhanam, nivāsahetu

sthananirvacanam. (varses-14-22)

Section B

Vāstusaukhyam of Todaramala

Unit: I    Vāstusaukhyam of Toaramala – Chapter – 3 Gha Paryavaranam: Tree plantation, śalya

śodhanam.( Verses31-49,74-82)

Unit: II  Vāstusaukhyam of Toaramala – Chapter – 4 avargapariśodhanam,vāstucakram,

grahavāstu, śilānyāsam. (verses 83-102,107-112 )

Section C

Vāstusaukhyam of Toaramala

Unit: IVāstusaukhyam – Chapter – 6 Pacavidhāni Ghāni (five types of house), śāla-ālinda

Pramāam (verses-171-194),Vīthikā Pramāam (195- 196)

Unit: IIVāstusaukhyam – Chapter – 7 Dvāraj–ānam, Stambha -Pramāam, Pa–ca Chatu sālāni Ghāni-Sarvatobhadram, Nandyāvartam,Vardhamānam, Svastikam, Rūcakam (verses 203- 217)

Section D

Vāstusaukhyam of Todaramala

Unit: I   Vāstusaukhyam -Chapter -8. Ekāsīti-pada- Vāstuchakram (287- 302), Marmasthānāni

(305- 307).

Unit: II  Vāstusaukhyam -Chapter -9 Vāsādisanirūpaam, Dvārafalam, Dvārvedhafalam (322- 335, 359-369).

 

 

Vidyasagar University

Curriculum for B.A (Honours) in Sanskrit

[Choice Based Credit System]

 

 

Semester-IV

Course Course Code Name of the Subjects Course Type/

Nature

Teaching Scheme in hour per week Credit Marks
L T P
CC-8 C8T: Indian Epigraphy, Paleography and Chronology Core Course – 8 5 1 0 6 75
CC-9 C9T: Modern Sanskrit Literature Core Course – 9 5 1 0 6 75
CC10 C10T: Sanskrit and World Literature Core Course – 10 5 1 0 6 75
GE-4   TBD Generic Elective-4 6 75
SEC-2 SEC2T: Machine Translation: Tools and

Techniques Or

Evolution oflndian

scripts Or Sanskrit

Meter and Music

Skill Enhancement Course-2 1 1 0 2 50
Semester Total 26 350

 

 

List of the Core Course (CC) and Electives

Core Course (CC)

CC-8: Indian Epigraphy, Paleography and Chronology

CC-9: Modern Sanskrit Literature

CC-10: Sanskrit and World Literature

 

Skill Enhancement Course(SEC)

SEC-2: Machine Translation: Tools and Techniques

Or

SEC-2: Evolution of Indian scripts

Or

SEC-2: Sanskrit Meter and Music

Generic Electives (GE)

GE-4: Basic Principles of Indian Medicine System (Ayurveda)

Or

GE-4: Computer Applications for Sanskrit

Or

GE-4: Nationalism and Indian Literature

 

CC-8: Indian Epigraphy, Paleography ,pd Chronology                           Credits 06

CC8T: Indian Epigraphy, Paleography and Chronology

Course Contents:

Prescribed Course:

Section ‘A’                              Epigraphy

Section ‘B’                              Paleography

Section ‘C’                              Study of selected inscriptions

Section ‘D’                              Chronology

 

Section ‘A’

Epigraphy

Unit: I                         Introduction to Epigraphy and Types of Inscriptions

Unit: II                                   Importance of Indian Inscriptions in the reconstruction of Ancient Indian History and

Culture

Unit: III                      History of Epigraphical Studies in India

Unit: IV                      History of Decipherment of Ancient Indian

Scripts (Contribution of Scholars in the field of

epigraphy): Fleet, Cunninghum, Princep, Buhler,

Ojha, D.C.Sircar.

Section ‘B’

Paleography

 

Unit: I                         Antiquity of the Art of Writing

Unit: II                                   Writing Materials, Inscribers and Library

Unit: III                      Introduction to Ancient Indian Scripts.

 

Section ‘C’

Study of selected inseri’ptions

Unit: I                         Asoka’s Giranara Rock Edict-I

Asoka’s Saranatha Pillar Edict

Unit: II                                   Girnara Inscription ofRudradaman

Unit: III                      Eran Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta

Mehrauli Iron Pillar Inscription of Candra

Unit: IV                      Delhi Topra Edict of Bisaladeva

 

Section ‘D’

Chronology

Unit: I                         General Introduction to Ancient Indian Chronology

Unit: II                                   System of Dating the Inscriptions (Chronograms)

Unit: III                      Main Eras used in Inscriptions – Vikrama Era, Saka Era and Gupta Era

 

~

 

CC-9: Modern Sanskrit Literature                                                 Credits 06

CC9T: Modern Sanskrit Literature

Course Contents:

  • Prescribed Course:

Section’A’                   Mahakavya and Charitakavya

Section ‘B’                  GadyaKavya and Rupaka

Section ‘C’                  GitiKavya and Other genres

Section ‘D’                  General Survey of Modern Sanskrit Literature

Section ‘A’

Mahakavya and Charitakavya

 

 

Unit: I   \SvatantryaSam bhavam (RevaprasadaDwi vedi)

Canto 2, verses 1-45

Bhimayanam (Prabha Shankar Joshi)

Canto X. verses 20-29;

Canto – XI. Verses 13-20 & 40-46.

 

Section ‘B’

Gadya and Rupaka

 

Unit: I   Sataparvika (Abhiraja Rajendra Mishra)

Unit: II  SardulaSakatam (Virendra Kumar Bhattacharya)

 

Section ‘C’

Gitikavya and Other genres

Unit: I   Bhatta Mathuma Nath Shastri (Kundaliyan,

BacchuLal Avasthi Jnaana (Kaete, Kva Yataste),

SrinivasaRath (Katama Kavita) etc

Unit: II    Hariram Acharya (Sankalpa Gitih), Pushpa Dikshit (Bruhi kosminYuge .. )

Radha Vallabh Tripathi DhivaraGitih (Naukamihasaramsaram … );

Unit III    Harshdev Madhava Haiku- Snanagrihe, vedana, mrityuh I, mrtyuh 2; khanih; shatavadhani R.

Ganesh (kavi-visadah, varsavibhutih

Section ‘D’

General Survey

Unit 1    Pandita Kshama Rao, P.K. Narayana Pillai, S. B. Varnekar, ParmanandShastri, Reva Prasad Dwivedi

Unit 2    Janaki VallabhShastri, Ram Karan Sharma, Jagannath Pathak, S. Sunderrajan, Shankar Dev Avatare

Unit 3    Haridas SiddhantaVagish, Mula Shankar M. Yajnika, Mahalinga Shastri, Leela Rao Dayal, Y atindra Vimal

Chowdhury, Virendra Kumar Bhattacharya

 

CC-10: Sanskrit and World Literature                                                                  Credit 06

CClOT: Sanskrit and World Literature

Course Contents:

 

Prescribed Course:

Section ‘A’   Survey of Sanskrit Literature in the World

Section’B’    Upanisads and Gita in World Literature

Section ‘C’   Sanskrit Fables in World Literature

Section ‘D’   Ramayarya and Mahabharata in South East Asian Countries

Section ‘E’    Kalidasa’s Literature in World Literature

Section ‘F’    Sanskrit Studies across the World

 

Section ‘A’

Survey of Sanskrit Literature in the World

Unit: I      Vedic cultural elements in ancient Eastern and Western societies.

Unit: II     Presence of Sanskrit words in the World languages.

Unit: III    General survey of the Classical Sanskrit Literature in

the Eastern and Western literature.

Section ‘B’

Upanisads and Gita in the West

Unit: I   Dara Shikoh’s Persian Translation of Upanisads and their Influence on Sufism, Latin translation and its influence on Western thought

Unit: II   Translation of the Gita in European languages and religio-philosopliical thought of the west.

Section ‘C’

Sanskrit Fables in WofJd Literature

 

 

Unit: I   Translation of Pancatantra in Eastern and Western Languages.

Translation of Vetalapancavirhsatika, Sirhhasanadva.rrirpsika and Sukasaptati in Eastern

Unit: II   Languages and Art.

 

Section ‘D’

Ramayanaa and Mahabharata in South Eastern Asia

Unit: I    Rama Katha in south eastern countries

Unit: II   Mahabharata stories as depicted in folk cultures of SE Asia

Section ‘E’

Kalidasa in the West

Unit: I   English and Gennan translation of Kalidasa ‘s writings and their influence on western literature and theatre.

 

Section ‘F’

Sanskrit Studies across the World

 

Unit: I

  1. Sanskrit Study Centers in Asia
  2. Sanskrit Study Centers in Europe
  3. Sanskrit Study Centers in America

 

 

SEC-2: Machine Translation: Tools and Techniques                               Credits 06

SEC2T: Machine Translation: Tools and Techniques

Course Contents:

Prescribed Course

Section ‘A’                  Theoretical Concepts of Machine Translation

Section ‘B’                  Survey of Machine Translation

Section ‘C’                  Machine Translation (MT) Approaches

Section ‘D’                  Challenges in Machine Translation

 

Section ‘A’

Theoretical Concepts of Machine Translation

Unit: I   Human vs Computer translation of languages.

Basics of Machine Translation, Tools and

Techniques of Machine Translation, Source vs

Target Langugae

Section ‘B’

Survey of Machine Translation

Unit: I   Survey of Machine Translation Systems, List of research laboratories for machine translation

 

Section ‘C’

Machine Translation (MT) Approaches

Unit: I   Rule Base MT: Transfer-based, Interlingual and Dictionaly Based, Statistical MT, Example Based MT,

Hybrid MT

Section ‘D’

Challenges in Machine Translation

Unit: I   Ambiguity and Acceptability

Or,

 

SEC-2: Evolution of Indian scripts                                                 Credits 06

Course Contents:

..

Prescribed Course:

Section ‘A’

Section ‘B’

 

Unit-Wise Division

Section ‘A’

Unit I

1. Antiquity of writing in India

  1. Sign & symbols – pre-scripts
  2. Early BrahmI and Kharoshthi Scripts
  3. Indus Valley script – Introduction

Section ‘B’

Unit: I

1. Types/Kinds of the BrahmI script by 400 A.D.

2.Transition to early modem Indian script

3. Causes of variation in the BrahmI script

 

Or,

SEC-2: Sanskrit Meter and Music

SEC2T: Sanskrit Meter and Music

Course Contents:

Section ‘A’  Brief Introduction to Chhandasastra

Section ‘B’    Classification and Elements of Sanskrit Meter

Section ‘C’    Analysis of Selected Vedic Meters and their musical rendering

Section ‘D’    Analysis of Selected Classical Meters and their musical rendering

 

Unit-Wise Division:

Section ‘A’

Brief Introduction to Chhandasastra

 

Unit: I  Brief Introduction to Chhandasastra

Section ‘B’

Classification and Elements of Sanskrit Meter

Unit: I   Syllabic verse (aksaravrtta):

Syllabo-quantitative verse (vanavrtta) Quantitative verse (matravrtta)

Syllables: laghu and guru

Unit: II   Gana Feet

Section ‘C’

Analysis of Selected Vedic Meter and their Lyrical Methods (lfFf-‘{f~fa)

Unit: I  Definition, Example, Analysis and Lyrical Methods of following Meters:

gayatri, usnika, anustupa, brhati, pamkti, tristup and jagati

Section ‘D’

Analysis of Selected Classical Meter and their Lyrical Methods (गान पद्धति)

Unit: I  Definition, Example, Analysis and Lyrical Methods of following Meters:

Bhujangaprayata, sragvini, totaka, harigitika, Vidyunmala, anustupa, arya, malini, sikharini, Vasantatilaka, mandaranta, sragdhara and sardulavikridita

 

GE-4: Basic Principles of Indian Medicine System (Ayurveda)                          Credits 06

GE4T: Basic Principles of Indian Medicine System (Ayurveda)

Course Contents:

Prescribed Course:

 

Section ‘A’   Introduction to Indian Medicine System: Ayurveda

Section ‘B’   Basic Principles of Ayurveda

Section ‘C’   Dietetics, Nutrition and Treatments in Ayurveda .

Section ‘D’   Important Medicinal Plants and their based on Ayurveda

 

Section ‘A’

Introduction to Indian Medicine System: Ayurveda

Unit: I   Definition of Ayurveda, Ayuh (Life), Sarira

(Body), Health, Aim of Ayurveda, Subject Matter of Ayurveda, Salient Features of Ayurveda,

Concept of Health according to Ayurveda, Unique features of .Ayurveda.

Unit: II  History of Ayurveda, Atharvaveda as an early source for medicinal speculations, Introduction to

Major Texts (Susrut Samhita and Caraka Samhita) and Authors (Susruta and Caraka) and Astanga Hrdayam, Astanga Sali.graha of Vagbhata.

 

Unit: III  Eight Components of .Ayurveda ( astanga Ayurveda):

 

  1. Kaycikitsa (General Medicine)
  2. Kaumarabhftya(Pediatrics)
  3. SalyaTantra (Surgery)
  4. Salakya-Tantra (Ent. and Ophthalmology)
  5. Bhuta Vidya (Psychiatry Medicine).
  6. Visa Vijnana (Toxicology).
  7. Rasayana (Rejuvenates).
  8. Vajikarana (Aphrodisiac).

Section ‘B’

Basic Principles of’Ayurveda

Unit I                         

1. The Trigunas: Sattva,Rajas and Tamas.

  1. The Paficamahabhiitas:Akasa (Space),

Vayu (Air),Teja or Agni (Fire), Jala (Water) and PrthvI (Earth).

  1. The Tridosas: Vata,Pitta and Kapha.
  2. The Saptadhatus: Rasa (fluid), Rakta(blood), Marhsa, Meda (fat), Asthi, Majja and Sukra.
  1. The Trayodosagni: Jatharagni (gastric fire), Saptadhatvagni and Paficabhiitagni.
  1. The Trimalas:PurI~a (faeces),Miitra (urine) and Sveda (sweat).

Unit: II   Ayurvedic understanding of lifestyle and concepts of preventive medicine.

Seasonal regimen & social conduct and its effect on health, Concepts of Prakfti, Agni, and Kosta.

SvasthaVrtta (Preventive Medicine) Understanding Health and Disease in Ayurveda

 

Unit: III  Diagnosis of illness: eight ways to diagnose

illness, called Nac;II (pulse), Miitra (urine), Mala (stool), Jihva (tongue), Sabda (speech), Sparsa (touch), Drk (vision), and A.kfti (appearance).

 

Section ‘C’

Dietetics, Nutrition and Treatments in .Ayurveda

 

Unit: I   Ayurvedic understanding of nutrition and

metabolism, Classification of A.hara according to

Ayurveda and Viruddhahara (incompatible diet) &

role of diet.

Unit: II                                   Commonly used substances and their therapeutic

properties and Pharmacology: Intro to basic

principles of Ayurvedic pharmacology, Art and

science of Ayurvedic Pharmacy and Understanding

Ayurvedic Herbs and common formulations

PaNcakarma and Other Ayurvedic Specialty

Treatments: Method and classification of

treatments in Ayurveda, Pretreatment, Therapeutic

vomiting (Vamana), Purgation Therapy, Enema

(Basti), Nasal Administration – Nasya, Blood

Unit: III                      Letting (RaktaMoksa), Introduction and

importance of Pancakarma/Detoxification, Science

and art of rejuvenation (Rasayana and VajikaraQa).

Ayurvedic prenatal and postpartum care for healthy

mothers and babies, Sarhskara, care of infants and

children.

 

Section ‘D’

Important Medicinal Plants in Ayurveda

Unit: I                         19 Medicinal Plants in Susruta Sarhhita: Tuls1,

Haridra, Sarpagandha, Gh:rta Kuman, Guggulu,

Brahm1, Amala, Aswagandha, Arjun Tree,

Turmeric, Ceylon Hydrolea, Neema Plant, Lady

Fems, Blackberries, Pot Marigold, Camomile,

Peppermint, Fenugreek and Aloe Vera.

 

GE-4: Computer Applications for Sanskrit                                               Credits 06

GE4T: Computer Applications for Sanskrit

Course Contents:

Section A                    Interactive Sanskrit Teaching Learning Tools

Section B                    Standard for Indian Languages (Unicode)

Section C                    Text Processing and Preservation Tools

Section D                    Optical Character Reader

Section A

Interactive Sanskrit Teaching Learning Tools

Unit: I                                     Interactive Sanskrit Learning

Tools, Introduction, Why

Interactive Tools for Sanskrit?

E-learning, Basics of

Multimedia, Web based tools

development

HTML, Web page etc., Tools

and Techniques

Section B

Standard for Indian Languages (Unicode)

Unit: I                                     Unicode Typing in Devanagari

Scripts, Typing Tools and

Software

Section C

Text Processing and Preservation Tools

Unit: I                                     Text Processing, Preservation,

Techniques, Text Processing

and Preservation, Tools and

Techniques, Survey

Section D

Optical Character Reader

Unit: I                         Optical Character Reader

(OCR), Applications of OCR

for Sanskrit and Indian

Languages, Tool and

Techniques, Survey

 

 

Or,

GE-4: Nationalism and Indian Literature                                     Credits 06

GE4T: Nationalism and Indian Literature

Course Contents:

Prescribed Course:

Section ‘A                   Concepts and Basic Features of Indian Nationalism

Section ‘B’                   Nationalism and Concept of ‘Rasfra’ in Sanskrit Literature

Section ‘C’                  Rise of Indian Nationalism and Modern Indian Literature

Section ‘A’

Concepts and Basic Features of Indian Nationalism

 

Unit: I                         Definition of Indian Nation, Nature and Elements :

                                    Meaning of Nation, Definitions in the light of Modem

Political Science; Western Concept of Nation, Origion

and Development of Nationalism in West; Constituent

Elements of Nation; Different view regarding Nation and

State; Indian Concept of Nation, Meaning, Etymology and

Fundamental Elements in the light of Sanskrit Literature.

 

Unit: II                       Definition ofNationality, Nature and Natonal Symbols

Meaning ofNationality, Definitions and Constituent

Elements of Nationality; Essential Factors of Nationality:

  1. National Intigration, 2. Patriotism, 3. Freedom, 4.

Religious Tolerance 5. National Pride, 6. National

Conciousness, 7. Citizenship.

National Symbols of India : I. National Anthem- ‘Jana

Gana Mana’ 2 .. National Song

‘Vande Mataram’ 3 .. National Flag ofindia, 4. National

Emblem ‘Ashok Chakra ‘.

Section ‘B’

Nationalism and Concept of’ Rastra’ in Sanskrit Literature

Unit: I                         Origin, Development and Concept of’ Ra~tra’ in Sanskrit

Literature Concept and Nature of Vedic ‘Rii$fra’

(Atharvaveda,l 1.9.17; 12.1,1-12; SuklaYajurveda, 22.22);

Five Elements of Vedic ‘Rii$fra’ (Atharvaveda, 12.1, 1 );

Coronation Ceremony of Vedic King and its

relation with Nation State ‘Rii$_fra’

Satapathabriihmm;a, 51.1.8-13; 9.4.1.1-5); ‘Rii$/ra’

in the Context of ‘Saptiifiga ‘Theory of State

(Kautil ya’ s Arthasiistra, 6 .1, Mahabharata,

Siintiparva,56.5, Sukranzti, 1.61-62)

Unit: II                        Name, Geography and Features of ‘Bhiiratavar$a’ in

Sanskrit Literature Different Views Regarding Name of

‘Bharatavar~a’ in Vedic and Paurat)ika Literature;

Geography and Salient Features of ‘Bharatavar~a’ in

Vi~ryu Pural)a (2.3) Diversity and Geographical Unity

of ‘Bharatavar~a’ ( Valmiki Riimiiyal)a, Ki$kindhiikal)t;la,

chapters-46,47,48 ; Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa (fourth

canto)

Section ‘C’

Rise of Indian Nationalism and Modem Indian Literature

Unit: I                         Rise of Indian Nationalism and Freedom Struggle

Movement : Major Factors which led to the Rise of

Nationalist Sentiments in Modem Period with special

reference to: 1. Western thought and education

2.Rediscovery of India’s past 3. Socio-religious reform

movements 4. Impact of contemporary National

movements worldwide .Socio-Religious Nationalist

thoughts of: l .Swami Dayanand Saraswati, 2.

SwamiVivekanand, 3. Bankim Chandra

Chatopadhyay,4. Mahatma Gandhi, 5.

Dr.B.R.Ambedkar and 6.Vir Savarker. Freedom

struggle movement and relevance of Gandhian thought in

modem period with special reference to ‘Griima

Svariija ‘, Satyiigraha’, ‘Ahimsii’ and ‘SvadesI’ movement.

 

Unit: II Nationalism in Sanskrit Literature and Modern Indian Poetry:

Nationalist Trends of .Modem Sanskrit

Literature with special reference to

  1. ‘Satyiigrahagftii’ of Pandita K$amarava;
  2. ‘Bhiiratavijayaniif akam’ of Mathura Prashad Dikshita;

3.’Giindhicaritam’ of Charudeva Shastri;

  1. ‘Srisviimivivekiinandacaritam’ of Tryambaka

Sharma Bhandarkar. (Ref. Book : Tiwari, Shashi,

Rashtriyata evam Bharatiya Sahitya, pp.113-139)

Nationalistic thought in Modem Hindi Poetry: 1.

Bhartendu Harishchandra, 2. Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’,

  1. Jayashankar Prashad., 4.Maithili Sharan Gupta, 5.

Makhanla!Chaturvedi, 6. Subhadra Kumari Chauhan. (Ref.

Book : Tiwari, Shashi, Rashtriyata evam Bharatiya

Sahitya,pp.140-219)

Nationalistic thought in Modem Urdu

Poetry:1.Muhammad Iqbal(Taran-e- Hindi),

  1. Firakh GorakhPuri (Aya Madar-e- Hind), 3. Sagar

Nizami (Taran-e-Vatana),

  1. Afsar Merathi (Vatan Ka Rag), 5. Ali Sardar Jafari

(Yah Hindostan), 6. Ezaz Siddiqui

(Nagrn-e-Vatan).

(Ref. Book : Akhtar, Jaan Nisar, Hindostan Hamara,

part- l ,pp.49-86)

 

 

Vidyasagar University

Curriculum for B.A (General) in Sanskrit

[Choice Based Credit System]

Semester-IV

Course Course Code Name of the Subjects Course Type/

Nature

Teaching Scheme in hour per week Credit Marks
L T P
DSC-1D DSC1DT: Sanskrit Grammar Core Course 5 1 0 6 75
DSC-2D TBD DSC-2D (Other Discipline) Core Course 6 75
AECC

Core[L-2]

  Bengali-2 AECC – Core

[Language core]

5 1 0 6 75
SEC-2 TBD Skill Enhancement Course-1 1 1 0 2 50
Semester Total 20 275

 

Core Course (CC)

DSC-1D: Sanskrit Grammar

 

Skill Enhancement Course (SEC)

SEC-2: Basic Element of Ayurveda

Or

SEC-2: Yogasutra of Patanjali

 

Semester-IV

Core Course (CC)

DSC-1D (CC-4): Sanskrit Grammar

DSC1DT: Sanskrit Grammar

Prescribed Course:

Section ‘A’                            Laghusiddhantakaumudi : Samjna prakarana

Section ‘B’                            Laghusiddhantakaumudi : Sandhi prakarana

Section ‘C’                            Laghusiddhantakaumudi : Vibhakti prakarana

Unit-Wise Division:

Section ‘A’

Laghusiddhantakaumudi : Samjna prakarana

Unit: 1                                   Samjna prakarana

Section ‘B’

Laghusiddhantakaumudi : Sandhi prakarana

Unit: I                                    ac sandhi

Yan, guna, dirgha, ayadi, vrddhi and purvarupa

Unit: II                                  Hal sandhi :

Scutva, stutva, anunasikatva, chhatva and jastva

Unit III                                  Visarga sandhi:

Utva, lopa, satva and rutva

Section ‘C’

Laghusiddhantakaumudi : Vibhakti prakarana

Unit:I                                     Vibhaktyartha Prakarana

 

Skill Enhancement Course (SEC)

SEC-2: Basic Elements of Ayurveda

SEC2T: Basic Elements of Ayurveda

Prescribed Course:

Section ‘A’                           Introduction of Ayurveda

Section ‘B’                            Carakasamhita (sutra –sthanam)

Section ‘C’                            Taittiriyopanishad

Unit-Wise Division:

Section ‘A’

Introduction of Ayurveda

Unit I                                     Introduction to Ayurveda, History of Indian

Medicine in the pre-caraka period, The two schools

of Ayurveda: Dhanvantari and Punarvasu.

Unit II                                   Main Acaryas of Ayurvea – Caraka, Susruta,

Vagbhatta, Madhava, Sarngadhara and Bhavamisra

 

Section ‘B’

Carakasamhita (sutra –sthanam)

Unit I                         Carakasamhitā – (Sūtra-sthānam): Division of Time

and condition of nature and body in six seasons.

Regimen of Fall Winter (Hemanta), Winter (Śiśira)

& Spring (Vasanta) seasons.

Regimen of Summer (Grīsma), Rainy (Varsa) and  Autumn (Śarada) seasons.

 

Section ‘C’

Taittiriyopanishad

Unit:I                         Taittiriyopanishad – Bhrguvalli, anuvak 1-3

Unit: II                      Taittiriyopanishad – Bhrguvalli, anuvak 1-3

 

 

Or,

SEC-2: Yogasutra of Patanjali

SEC2T: Yogasutra of Patanjali

Prescribed Course:

Section ‘A’                           Yogasutra of Patanjali: Samadhi Pada

Section ‘B’                            Yogasutra of Patanjali: Sadhana Pada

Section ‘C’                            Yogasutra of Patanjali: Vibhuti Pada

Unit-Wise Division:

 

Section ‘A’

Yogasutra of Patanjali: Samadhi Pada

Unit: I                                     Yogasutra of Patanjali: Samadhi Pada (Sutras: 1-15)

Unit: II                                    Yogasutra of Patanjali: Samadhi Pada (Sutras: 16-29)

 

Section ‘B’

Yogasutra of Patanjali: Sadhana Pada

Unit: I                                     Yogasutra of Patanjali: Sadhana Pada (Sutras: 29-45)

Unit: II                                    Yogasutra of Patanjali: Sadhana Pada (Sutras: 46-55)

 

Section ‘C’

Yogasutra of Patanjali: Vibhuti Pada

Unit: I                                     Yogasutra of Patanjali: Vibh

Departmental Activities:

Apart  from the regular class teachings, both in U.G & P.G Courses, Deptt. Of Sanskrit holds departmental meeting on regular basis for planning of departmental activities. Department of Sanskrit initiated mentor mentee groups to explore the weak mentee of the classes through competent and expert mentor for skill development of the students . As a result a feedback from the part of mentee taken back and initiations are taken to resolve the deficiency of the mentee .Department of Sanskrit arranges Internal Assessment for U.G. & P. G. students. As per the guidelines of the parent University 2 internals having 10 marks each in Hons. Paper and 1 internal with having 10 marks are taken on regular basis. Following Academic Calendar of the Vidyasagar University 2 internals with having 10 marks each in both semester of P.G sections are taken in time. Regular tutorial classes are taken in both U.G & P.G courses.

Sl. No. Date Event Resource Person
1 19.01.2018 International Seminar on Shilpa, Sahitya, Sanskriti : Prachya Paschatyer Bhabnay Prof. Dilip Sur
2 16.02.2019 Departmental Seminar 1. Bishnupada Mahapatra, Professor, Department of Sanskrit, Sri Lalbahadur Shastri Rastriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, New Delhi

2. Dr. Uttam Biswas, Assistant Professor, Department. of Sanskrit, Vidyasagar University

3 07.04.2019 Educational Tour
4 02.05.2019 Parent-Teachers Meeting
5 17.05.2019 Farewell Ceremony of P.G. Students Dr. Uttam Biswas, Assistant Professor, Vidyasagar University
6 31.08.2018 Cultural Programme : विश्वसंस्कृतसप्ताहसमारोहो नवीनविद्यार्थिस्वागतसमारोहश्च Dr. Uday Chandra Bandyopadhyay
7 07. 09.2018 World Teacher’s Day Dr. Uday Chandra Bandyopadhyay
8 30.08.2019 Cultural Programme : विश्वसंस्कृतसप्ताहसमारोहो नवीनविद्यार्थिस्वागतसमारोहश्च Swami Vedatattwananda,

Principal, Ramakrishna Math Vivekananda Veda Vidyalaya

9 30.08.2019 Special Lecture : Relevance of Sanskrit in Present Society Swami Vedatattwananda,

Principal, Ramakrishna Math Vivekananda Veda Vidyalaya

10 02.09.2019 Visit of Eminent Professor Prof. Dr. Gopal Chandra Mishra
11 28.09.2019 Alumni Meet Dr. Mahidas Bhattacharya, Prof. Narayan Chandra Das

Prof. Dr. Tapan Kumar Dutta, Principal